Estimation of PMI by Raman Spe...

Estimation of PMI by Raman Spectroscopy

Estimation of PMI by Raman Spectroscopy Quiz Crafted by -

Cecilia Erika Ramírez Alba

Biomaterials Lecturer

University of Guadalajara.

Introduction to Post Mortem Interval (PMI)

The post-mortem interval (PMI) is the time that has elapsed since an individual's death. When the time of death is not known, the interval may be estimated, and so an estimated time of death established. There are standard medical and scientific techniques supporting such an estimation.

Let's look at the questions and their answer.

Que 1. Early postmortem changes in a human body:

a) Body cooling, rigor mortis and livores mortis.

b) Butyric fermentation

c) Black putrefaction

d) Dry decay

Answer – a) Body cooling, rigor mortis and livores mortis

Que 2. What is autolysis?

a) It is the result of molecular changes occurring within the cell, which gives rise to the death of the cell and its subsequent necrosis.  

b) This process gives rise to the release of enzymes from the cells, such as the pancreas, and in the case of the stomach also hydrochloric acid.

c) Following death both pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid are released from these cells, which gives rise to autodigestion of the gastric mucosa (gastromalacia).

d) All above.

Answer – d) All above

Que 3. The first chemical analysis of an historical artefact that can be viewed as “forensic” in its approach was reported in the literature by:

a) Sir Humphry Davy in 1815.

b) Wilkie Collins in 1866.

c) Professor Moriarty at the Reichenbach Falls in 1893

d) August Vollmer in 1924.

Answer – a) Sir Humphry Davy in 1815 

Que 4. Sir Chandrashekhara V. Raman was born in:

a) Dubai, United Arab Emirates

b) Tiruchirappalli, India

c) Jalisco, Mexico

d) Guadalajara, Spain

Answer – b) Tiruchirappalli, India

Que 5. Sir Chandrashekhara V. Raman won the 1930 Nobel Prize in:

a) Physics

b) Chemistry

c) Biology

d) Medicine

Answer – a) Physics  

Que 6. The presence of water or hydrated chemical species in specimens can hamper:

a) The Raman spectroscopy analysis

b) The mid-infrared spectroscopy analysis

c) The Chromatography analysis

d) The XRD analysis

Answer – b) The mid-infrared spectroscopy analysis

Que 7. To analyze a molecule by Raman spectroscopy, we required to measure:

a) The Rayleigh scattering

b) The Raman stokes

c) The Raman anti-stokes

d) No one above mentioned

Answer – b) The Raman stokes

Que 8. Molecule in cartilage that it is a good pattern evidence to estimate the Interval postmortem (PMI):

a) Collagen type II

b) Proteoglycan (PG)

c) Extracellular matrix (ECM)

d) Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)

Answer – a) Collagen type II

Que 9. Molecule associated with the stability of the collagen fibers:

a) Proline 

b) Amide III 

c) Hydroxyproline

d) Amide I

Answer – c) Hydroxyproline

Que 10. It is a variant of the putrefaction process characterized by hydrolysis and degeneration of unsaturated body fat into a yellowish-white, waxy substance consisting of saturated fatty acids.  

a) Mummification

b) Adipocere

c) Autolysis

d) All above

Answer – b) Adipocere

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