Forensic Ballistics

Forensic Ballistics Quiz Crafted by - 

Dr. Pankaj Kumar Pandey

Scientific Officer,

State Forensic Science Laboratory,

Home(Police) Dept.,

Govt. of MP SAGAR

Here is the List of Questions with Answers along with explanation

Que 1. The study of the behaviour and effect of a projectile when it hits a target is called-

(a) External ballistics         

(b) Terminal ballistics

(c) Internal ballistics         

(d) Intermediate ballistics

Answer – (b) Terminal ballistics

Explanation: Terminal ballistics is the study of how a projectile behaves when it hits its target and transfers its kinetic energy to the target. The bullet’s design, as well as its impact velocity, plays a huge role in how the energy is transferred.

Que 2. Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the development of firearms-

(a) Flint lock > Match lock > Wheel lock > Percussion lock

(b) Match lock > Wheel lock > Flint lock > Percussion lock

(c) Percussion lock > Wheel lock > Match lock > Flint lock

(d) Wheel lock > Match lock > Flint lock > Percussion lock

Answer – (b) Match lock > Wheel lock > Flint lock > Percussion lock

Que 3. A Firearm which is not manufactured as per standard design and parameters is called-

(a) Shotgun 

(b) Revolver

(c) Improvised Firearm

(d) Pistol

Answer – (c)  Improvised Firearm

Explanation: Improvised firearms (sometimes called zip guns or pipe guns) are firearms manufactured other than by a firearms manufacturer or a gunsmith, and are typically constructed by adapting existing materials to the purpose. They range in quality from crude weapons that are as much a danger to the user as the target to high quality arms produced by cottage industries using salvaged and repurposed materials.

Que 4.  Who designed AK-47 assault rifle?

(a) Mike Kalashnikov                         

(b) Patrick Ferguson

(c) Col. Calvin Goddard                    

(d) Mikhail Kalashnikov

Answer – (d)  Mikhail Kalashnikov

Explanation: Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov was a Russian lieutenant general, inventor, military engineer, writer, and small arms designer. He is most famous for developing the AK-47 assault rifle and its improvements, the AKM and AK-74, as well as the PK machine gun and RPK light machine gun.

Que 5. What is the ratio of potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulphur in black gun powder-

(a) 75:10:15                                       

(b) 10:75:15

(c) 75:15:10                                        

(d) 10:15:75

Answer – (c)  75:15:10   

Explanation: The term black powder was coined in the late 19th century, primarily in the United States, to distinguish prior gunpowder formulations from the new smokeless powders and semi-smokeless powders. Black powder is a granular mixture of a nitrate, typically potassium nitrate (KNO3), which supplies oxygen for the reaction; charcoal, which provides carbon and other fuel for the reaction, simplified as carbon (C); sulfur (S), which, while also serving as a fuel, lowers the temperature required to ignite the mixture, thereby increasing the rate of combustion. The current standard composition for the black powders that are manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as 1780. Proportions by weight are 75% potassium nitrate (known as saltpeter or saltpetre), 15% softwood charcoal, and 10% sulfur.

Que 6. In modern ammunition smokeless gunpowder is used. Which of the following composition is used in smokeless gunpowder-

(a) Nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin   

(b) Potassium nitrate and sulphur

(c) Lead styphnate and charcol               

(d) Barium nitrate and antimony sulphide

Answer – (a) Nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin   

Explanation: In 1884, Paul Vieille invented a smokeless powder called Poudre B (short for poudre blanche—white powder, as distinguished from black powder) made from 68.2% insoluble nitrocellulose, 29.8% soluble nitrocellulose gelatinized with ether and 2% paraffin. Besides generating a lot less smoke, smokeless powder burns much cleaner and more efficiently than black powder, greatly reducing powder fouling and increasing the performance of the shotgun, handgun, and rifle cartridges in which it is used. It is also much safer to produce than black powder, which has saved many lives over the years.

Que 7. The empty shell of a round is called-

(a) Casing                                           

(b) Bullet

(c) Cartridge                                     

(d) None of the above

Answer – (a) Casing 

Explanation: A shell casing is a piece of ammunition that is made of metal. It is often brass, but it can be made of other metals as well. Shell casings can be made from any kind of ammunition that is fired from a pistol, rifle or shotgun. It is not a bullet but it is a piece of the larger ammunition mechanism that is loaded into the chamber to be shot.

Que 8. Effect of reduction in barrel length of a shotgun on the dispersion of pellets is

(a) To decrease the spread     

(b) To increase the spread

(c) No effect on the spread     

(d) None of the above

Answer – (b) To increase the spread

Explanation: Shortening the barrel by sawing off the muzzle end does have some effect on the spread of shot. It is, however, not as great as popular tradition has. What effect exists, however, is mainly due to the high-pressure gases disrupting the shot column as it exits from the barrel. Shotgun propellants are very fast-burning, giving rise to a very sharp rise in pressure during the first few moments of ignition. In full "length barrels, the overall pressure within the barrel drops very considerably as the shot nears the muzzle and the volume of gas between the over-powder wad and the standing breech of the weapon increases. As the barrel is progressively shortened, the pressure being exerted on the base of the shot column as it exits the barrel becomes progressively greater.

Que 9. Choke in the shotgun barrel is used

(a) To decrease the pellet spread

(b) To increase the pellet spread

(c) To increase the muzzle velocity

(d) To decrease the muzzle velocity

Answer – (a) To decrease the pellet spread

Explanation: In firearms, a choke is a tapered constriction of a gun barrel at the muzzle end. Chokes are most commonly seen on shotguns, but are also used on some riflespistols, or even airguns. Its purpose is to shape the spread of the shot to gain better range and accuracy. Chokes are implemented as either screw-in chokes, selected for particular applications, or as fixed, permanent chokes, integral to the shotgun barrel.

Que 10. Which of the following is individual characteristics marks on a fired bullet-

(a) Firing pin marks                

(b) Ejection marks

(c) Striations marks                

(d) number of lands and grooves

Answer – (c) Striations marks       

Explanation: When a gun is fired, and the bullet blasts down the barrel, it encounters ridges and grooves that cause it to spin, increasing the accuracy of the shot. Those ridges dig into the soft metal of the bullet, leaving striations. By examining unique striations, scratches left behind on the bullet and weapon, individual fired rounds can be, but not always are, linked back to a specific weapon.

Que 11. In case of a rifled firearm the degree of twist is referred to-

(a) Caliber                                          

(b) Bore

(c) Choke                                               

(d) Pitch

Answer – (d) Pitch

Explanation: The term pitch refers to the angle at which the rifling is cut in the barrel.

Que 12. The distance measured between two opposing lands inside the rifled barrel is known as-

(a) Twist                                             

(b) Helix

(c) Choke                                              

(d) Caliber

Answer – (d) Caliber

Explanation:  The term “caliber” refers to the diameter of a rifle or handgun's bore. It can also refer to the diameter of a bullet. Firearm calibers are usually measured in millimeters, hundredths of an inch or thousandths of an inch.

Que 13. Dirt ring can be seen around the gunshot entry hole at a distance-

(a) upto 3-inch                        

(b)  upto 3-4 feet

(c) at any range                      

(d)  none of the above

Answer – (c)  at any range 

Explanation: Bullet wipe-off/''ring of dirt'' Wounds from distant gunshots characteristically display a surrounding discoloration, a so-called ''ring of dirt'' (residue (oil, black powder, dirt) rubbed off as the projectile passed through the skin).

Que 14. To estimate range of fire which of the following are taken into consideration-

(a) Dirt ring                                        

(b) Scorching, Blackening, Tattooing

(c) Abrasion collar                           

(d) All of the above

Answer – (b) Scorching, Blackening, Tattooing

Explanation: Scorching is caused by the incandescent gases as they emerge from the muzzle of the weapon. The scorched skin, when it is available, it identifies the entry wound. The blackening is caused by the smoke deposits. The smoke particles are light. They do not travel afar. Therefore, smoke deposit i.e. blackening is limited to a short range. The colour of smoke is grey to black in black powder and light grey to dark grey in smokeless powder. The tattooing is also known as peppering or stippling. It is the deposit of unburnt or semi-burnt powder particles under the skin. Tattooing, ordinarily, cannot be removed with a swab.

Que 15. The range over which the trajectory of a bullet is so flat that it can hit the target without the need to compensate for bullet drop is called-

(a) Near contact range           

(b) Intermediate range

(c) Point blanke range             

(d) Distant range

Answer – (c)  Point blanke range             

Explanation: Point-blank range is any distance over which a certain firearm can hit a target without the need to compensate for bullet drop. Like any object in flight, a bullet is pulled downwards by gravity, so for distant targets, the shooter must point the firearm above the target to compensate. Otherwise, the bullet will hit the ground in front of the target. But if the target is close enough, bullet drop will be negligible so the shooter can aim the gun straight at the target. Point-blank range will vary by a weapon's external ballistics characteristics and the size of the target; the flatter the bullet's trajectory or the larger the target, the longer the point-blank range will be.

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