Forensic Medicine & Entomology

Forensic Medicine & Entomology

Forensic Medicine & Entomology Quiz Crafted by - 

Dr. Suchita Rawat

Guest Faculty (M.Sc Forensic Science)

Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi

Here’s the short interview of Quiz maker

1. Forensic Medicine & Entomology is an emerging field in the forensic science. How would you like to explain the scope of this discipline in our country?

Forensic Medicine and Entomology in India has been used long for estimation of PMI estimation, cause and manner of death. However, forensic entomology was seldom used and now has seen its application in PMI estimation. Both Forensic Medicine and Entomology is a filed with wide scope and research potential.

2. Would you like to share your experience in making this quiz?

The quiz prepared comprises of a combination and new and old concepts. Hope the students learn from it and enjoy it as much as I did while preparing the quiz!

3. Talking about the global perspective, where do you see this subject in the next few years?

With advancement of technology there is emergence of non-invasive virtual autopsy and examination in Forensic Medicine. Forensic Entomology has now seen wide application in toxicological analysis (entomotoxicology), DNA identification of victim from insect gut. The field has lot of scope in aquatic arthropods which have not been explored. The field require great work in Taxonomic identification using molecular markers and crime stimulated insect succession.

4.  I really appreciate your time ma’am for giving us such insights into the subject and also preparing such an engaging Quiz. What would be your message for the aspiring Forensic students?

With the fast-moving pace of the world technology students need to keep them updated with paradigm shift in Forensic Science and embark their academic endeavours in light of it. Furthermore, it is essential to be trained in the domain of your interest while pursing academic degree. I would advise students to participate in forensic related extracurricular activities and envisage future research in tandem with the Global perspective of Forensic Science.

Here is the List of Questions with Answers along with explanation

Que 1. Which Physician documented the distortions of cadavers resulting from insect feeding or bite marks by cockroaches, ants, and lesser necrophiles?

A. Louis Bergeret

B. Klingelhöffer

C. Hermann Reinhard

D. J.F. Zacharias

Answer: B. Klingelhöffer

Explanation: Klingelofer documented the distortion of cadavers resulting from insect feeding or bite marks by cockroaches, ants or lesser necrophiles.

Que 2.  Who provided the first modern case report in forensic entomology?

A. Jean Megnin

B. Louis Bergeret

C. Hermann Reinhard

D. Murray Galt Motter

Answer: B. Louis Bergeret

Explanation: Louis bergeret provided the first modern case report in forensic entomology. Bergeret performed an autopsy  on the mummified body of an infant discovered in a paris house. He recognized and drew conclusions from the pattern of succession of different insect species onto the corpse and also saw the significance of the duration of the life cycles of different cadaver insects.

Que 3. Whose seminal works Fauna des Tombeaux and La Fauna des Cadares describes eight distinct waves associated with insect succession on bodies located in terrestrial environments and two waves associated with buried bodies?

A. Jean Megnin

B. Hermann Reinhard

C. Murray Galt Motter

D. Francesco Redi

Answer: A. Jean Megnin

Explanation: Megnin seminal works Fauna des tombeaux and La Fauna des charles describes eight distinct waves associated with insect succession on bodies located in terrestrial environments and two waves associated with buried bodies.

Que 4. Which necrophagous fly can discover well hidden, covered, wrapped, or buried bodies?

A. Blow flies

B. Flesh flies

C. Scuttle flies or humpbacked flies

D. Skipper flies

Answer: C.  Scuttle flies or humpbacked flies

Explanation: flies can discover well hidden, covered, wrapped or buried bodies. The scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris is a dipterean fly in the family of phoridae named for short, rapid bursts of running motion characteristics of adults. The species is alternatively referred to as the humpbacked fly because of its hump-backed appearance or the coffin fly because of its ability to dig deep into the ground to reach buried carrion and penetrate closed containers such as coffins.

Que 5. In Forensic Entomology Adventitious species are

A. Insects feeding on the corpse

B. Insects that feed on both the corpse and associated arthropods

C. Insects that use the corpse as an extension of their own natural habitat

D. None of the above

Answer: C. Insects that use the corpse as an extension of their own natural habitat

Explanation:  According to the smith in 1986, four categories of insects can be found on decomposing carrion I.e necrophagous species feeding on the carrion, predators and parasites feeding on th necrophagous species- this group also contains schizophagous species which feed on the body first and become predaceous on the later stages, omnivorous species feeding on the carrion and other arthropods like ants, wasps and some bettles, other species like springtales and spiders which use the corpse as an extension of their environment.

Que 6. Which Beetle family is found in dry and skeletal stages of decomposition?

A. Rove Beetles (Family Staphylinidae)

B. Clown Beetles (Family Histeridae)

C. Checkered Beetles (Family Cleridae)

D. Skin Beetles (Family Dermestidae)

Answer: D. Skin Beetles (Family Dermestidae)

ExplanationFamily dermestidae is found in the dry and skeletal stages of decomposition. The dry decay stage is characterised by the movement from previously dominant carrion fauna to new species.

Que 7. Choose correct option

Assertion (A): Beetles larva can be easily seen in mixture of dipteran larva feeding on a carrion

Reason (R): The beetle larva is larger in size and their entire body is covered with hairy tufts

A. Only (A)true

B. Only (R)true

C. Both (A) and (R) true

D. Both (A) and (R) False

Answer: C. Both (A) and (R) true

ExplanationBettles larva can be easily seen in the mixture of the dipterean larva feeding on a carrion. The bettle larvae is larger in size and the body is covered with the hairy tufts.

Que 8. The following are forensically important aquatic arthropods except

A. Caddisflies

B. Mayflies

C. Midges

D. Muscid flies

Answer: D. Muscid flies

ExplanationForensic important arthropods are caddisflies, mayflies and midges. The closer association of indoor arthropods with living humans highlights a greater potential of indoor arthropods as forensic evidence in itself. This is underpinned by the huge diversity of mite species associated with human habitation.

Que 9. In Forensic Entomology, the laboratory rearing conditions for insects is

A. 15-20°C and 80-90% humidity

B. 10-20°C and 10-50% humidity

C. 27-30°C and 80-90% humidity

D. 27-30°C and 50-70% humidity

Answer: C. 27-30°C and 80-90% humidity

Explanation: In forensic entomology, the laboratory rearing conditions for insects is 27-30 degree Celsius and 80-90% humidity.

Que 10. Choose the molecular loci used for identification of insect species in Forensic Entomology

A. Dehydrogenase

B. Chitinase

C. Beta-galactosidase

D. Cytochrome C oxidase (COI and COII)

Answer: D. Cytochrome C oxidase (COI and COII)

ExplanationCytochrome C oxidase is used for identification of the insect species in forensic entomology. Species identification of insects of forensic importance, especially flies, is a very complicated and difficult process, in which the small anatomic identification keys are observed with stereomicroscope. For accurate and convenient species identification, DNA- based methods have been developed usually analyzing the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene. 

Que 11. Molecular death is

A. Complete and irreversible cessation of brain, heart and lungs function

B. Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

C. Total loss of EEG activity, but heart is functioning

D. Vitals functions are at low pitch that cannot be detected by clinical examination

Answer: B. Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

ExplanationMolecular death is the death of the individual cells and tissues after the somatic death. Molecular autopsy or postmortem molecular testing is the set of molecular techniques used in forensic medicine to attempt to determine the cause of the death in unexplained cases in particular sudden unexplained death.

Que 12. Bluish Green Post Mortem staining is observed in case of

A. Asphyxia

B. Carbon monoxide poisoning

C. Hydrogen sulphide poisoning

D. Phosphorus poisoning

Answer: C. Hydrogen sulphide poisoning

ExplanationBluish green postmortem staining is seen incase of hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Postmortem staining is bluish green or reddish purple discoloration due to the capillary venous distension with blood at the undersurface of the skin of the dependent parts of the body, due to settling of the blood in those areas due to the pull of gravity when circulation to keep the blood in motion ceases.

Que 13. Which enzyme would be observed in high concentration for an aged wound of 8 hours or above?

A. Amino peptidase

B. Alkaline phosphatase

C. Histamine

D. ATPase and Esterase

Answer: B. Alkaline phosphatase

Explanation: Alkaline phosphatase will be seen in the higher concentration after the aged wound of 8hours or more.

Que 14. Which of the following option indicates Postmortem Submersion? 

i) Negative diatom and Gettler test                                                                                                 

ii) Drowning in shallow water                                                                                                           

iii) Froth, cadaveric spasm, algae and mud in finer branches of bronchioles, water in lungs

iv) Heavy weight tied to body

A. i, ii

B. ii, iv

C. iii, iv

D. i, iv

Answer: D.  i, iv

Explanation: Postmortem submersion indicates the negative diatom and gettler's test and heavy weight tied to the body. With the help of diatom test we can ascertain that whether the cause of death is drowning or not.

Que 15. Which of the following option indicates Strangulation?

i) Signs of struggle absent

ii) Hyoid bone fracture may occur

iii) Face is Congested and livid with petechiae

iv) Bruising of neck muscles

A. i, ii

B. ii, iv

C. iii, iv

D. i, iv

Answer: C.  iii, iv

ExplanationStrangulation indicates face is congested and livid is petechiae along with bruising of neck muscles. Strangulation is application of external pressure on the neck either by bare hands or by a ligature or by any other material. It is a form of asphyxia caused by constriction of the neck without suspending the body.

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