Forensic Medicine

Que 1. Professional death sentence is

a) Imprisonment for life                                           

b) Rigrous imprisonment

c) Erasing of name from the medical register          

d) Death by hanging

Answer - (c) Erasing of name from the medical register

Explanation: It is the erasure of name from the professional register due to infamous conduct in any professional respect which deprives the practitioner of all the privileges.

 Causes of erasure:

1) After the death of the registered practitioner.

2) Entry which is made in error or as a result of fraud.

3) Penal erasure due to professional infamous conduct          *

professional infamous conduct* : Any conduct of doctor who might reasonably be regarded disgraceful and dishonorable to the profession judged by his professional brethren of good repute and competence. Misconduct are1) Adultery. 2) Performing criminal abortion. 3) Association with bad people. 4) Advertising: means no photo on sign board, No add on paper (except on starting practice, changing, on closing temporary). 5) Addiction to any drug or alcohol. 6) Issuing false certificate. 7) Covering: means assisted by non medical persons. 8) Dichotomy or fee splitting. 9) Disclosing the secrets of patient.

Que 2. Arsenic poisoning presents with symptoms mimicking

a) Cholera                    

b) Dhatura poisoning             

c) Barbiturate poisoning           

d) Morphine poisoning

Answer - (a) Cholera

Explanation: It is shown in the case of sub acute type (Gastroenteritis type) of arsenic poisoning which mimics  choleral  sign and symptoms  when small dose of arsenic is given at repeated interval.

 The differences which can observe to confirm that whether it is arsenic poisoning or cholera are as follows

Arsenic poisoning


Vomiting proceeds purging

Purging proceeds vomiting

Stool is initially somewhat rice water like and later on turns in to bloodstained stool

Stools are rice water throughout and passes as a involuntary jet

Pain in throat

No pain in throat

No effect in toning of voice

Voice becomes rough and whistling

Conjunctiva in inflamed

Conjunctiva is normal

Vomitus contain mucus bile and streaks of blood

Vomitus is watery

Que 3. Tentative cuts are seen in a case of

a) Homicide                     

b) Suicide                       

c) Accident                 

d) Fall from height

Answer - (b) Suicide

Explanation: Hesitation cuts/tentative cuts are parallel superficial cuts suggestive of suicidal motive, seen in the vital parts of the body such as neck, chest on left side (precordial area), wrists, etc. and are inflicted by the victim, prior to the final fatal deep cut or stab, e.g. suicidal cutthroat wound. Usually hesitation cuts are not seen in homicidal cut throat wound. These less severe cutting marks are often caused by attempts to build up courage before attempting the final, fatal wound. Non-fatal, shallow hesitation wounds can also accompany the deeper, sometimes fatal incisions. Although hesitation cuts are not always present in cases of suicide, they are typical of suicidal injuries. However, the presence of hesitation marks alongside or near to the final fatal mark usually indicates a forensic diagnosis of suicide over other possible causes of death.

Que 4. Smokeless gun powder is composed of

a) KMnO4                                      

b) HCN                            

c) Nitrocellulose         

d) Sulphur

Answer - (c)Nitrocellulose

Explanation: Smokeless powders was introduced as a black powder replacement in the 1880's. Besides generating a lot less smoke, smokeless powder burns much cleaner and more efficiently than black powder, greatly reducing powder fouling and increasing the performance of the shotgun, handgun, and rifle cartridges in which it is used. It is also much safer to produce than black powder, which has saved many lives over the years. Smokeless powder consists of Nitrocellulose (single-base powders), frequently combined with up to 50 percent nitroglycerin (double-base powders), and sometimes nitroglycerin and nitro guanidine (triple-base), corned into small spherical balls or extruded into cylinders or flakes using solvents such as ether. Other minor ingredients, such as stabilizers and ballistic modifiers, are also added. Double-base propellants are common in handgun and rifle ammunition. Triple-base propellants are more common in artillery guns.

Que 5. Pond’s fracture is common in

a) Children                        

b) Adolescent                 

c) Adult                       

d) Old age

Answer - (a) Children

Explanation: Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture seen in the cranial vault (e.g., occipital, frontal or parietal)of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones.

This is a simple dent in the skull, which results from an obstetric forceps blade, or a blow from blunt object or forcible impact against some protruding object. This is basically due to the elasticity of the skull, and is especially likely to occur in the infants. The inner table of the skull here is usually intact. However, fissured fractures may be seen around the periphery of the dent. The duramater is also seen intact here and brain tissue is rarely injured. In an infant it resembles dent on a ping-pong ball

Que 6. Choking is a constricting device within barrel at the muzzle end of

a) Revolver                       

b) 303 rifle                   

c) Shotgun                 

d) Semiautomatic pistol

Answer - (c) Shotgun

Explanation : Normally when a shotgun is fired, the lead pellets spread out soon after their exit from the muzzle end and the degree of dispersion (or area of spread) increases with the range of firing. Choking is a mechanical narrowing mechanism or constriction device at the muzzle end of the shotgun. which can control to some extent the area of dispersion of the pellets.

Various chokes are devised depending on fraction of an inch by which the muzzle end of the firearm is constricted. Thus, we have shotguns of following types:

• Full choke shotgun (with constriction of 40 thousandth's of an inch)

• 3/4th choke shotgun (with constriction of 30 thousandth's of an inch)

• 1/2 choke shotgun (with constriction of 20 thousandth's of an inch)

• 1/4 choke shotgun (with constriction of 10 thousandth's of an inch).

• Improvised cylinder (with constriction of 3-5 thousandth's of an inch)

• True cylinder is a shotgun with no choking (any constriction at all).

Advantages of Choking for a Shotgun

• It enables the lead pellets or shot to remain together for long distance during their flight from muzzle end to the target.

• It can reduce spread area of the pellets, on the target (victim) aimed.

• It makes the weapon more lethal.

Que 7. Brush burn refers to

a) Injury due to friction                                                       

b) Injury due to electrocution

c) Injury due to steam                                                         

d) Injury due to burns

Answer - (a) Injury due to friction

Explanation: brush burn is an abrasion caused by violent lateral (tangential) rubbing against a surface as in dragging over the ground is called brush burn or gravel rash. It is a scraping injury over a large area. It is also known as "Friction burn" (scuff or brush burn) is an extensive, superficial, reddened excoriated area without serous ooze or bleeding and with little or no linear mark. It may occur due to tangential contact with a smooth surface or when the skin is covered by clothing. Brush bums and friction bums are seen in motor cyclists, persons ejected from vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists thrown forward after the primary impact from a motor vehicle. If a victim is struck a glancing blow with a rough object, such as a stone or a stick, brush bum will be caused.

Que 8. A dead body is found to have marks like branching of a tree on front of the chest. The most likely cause of death could be due to

a) Firearm injury                                                                

b) Lightning injury

c) Injuries due to bomb blast

d) Road traffic accident

Answer - (b) Lightning injury

Explanation : A tree branching mark or fern-like injury present on the chest is known as an arborescent marking or as filigree burns or lightning prints, etc. on the skin are pathognomonic of lightning injury. It is a patterned area of transient erythema which appears within an hour of accident and gradually fades within 24 hours.

It was thought that these markings were due to the photographs of the neighbouring trees imprinted on the body by the discharge of lightning, but in reality they are the result of the passage of lightning stroke along the skin and consequent rupture of the superficial vessels.

Que 9. Irresistible sexual desire in male is known as

a) Nymphomania        

b) Tribadism                   

c) Satyriasis               

d) Sadism

Answer - (c) Satyriasis

Explanation : a) Nymphomania : Excessive sexual desire, urge or drive in a woman. Some of such women may turn lesbianists     

 b) Tribadism: Tribadism or tribbing, commonly known by its scissoring position, is a lesbian sexual practice in which a woman rubs her vulva against her partner's body for sexual stimulation, especially for stimulation of the clitoris. This may involve vulva-to-vulva contact or rubbing the vulva against the partner's thigh, stomach, buttocks, arm, or other body part (excluding the mouth). A variety of sex positions are practiced, including the missionary position               

c) Satyriasis : It is excessive sexual desire, arousal and drive in case of males. These subjects are liable to commit sex offences or pervasive acts.

d) Sadism: In sadism, the person gets sexual gratification by torturing sex partner by beating, biting, whipping or ill-treating the partner.

Que 10. Most common pattern of fingerprint is

a) Arches                      

b) Loops                          

c) Whorls                  

d) Composites

Answer - (b) Loops

Explanation : All fingerprints are divided into three classes on the basis of their general pattern: loops, whorls,  and arches. Sixty to 65 percent of the population have loops, 30 to 35 percent have whorls, and  about 5 percent have arches. These three classes form the basis for all ten-finger classification systems presently in use.

Que 11. Post mortem caloricity is seen in all, except

a) Burns                         

b) Sunstroke                    

c) Tetanus                

d) Septicemia

Answer - (a) Burns

Explanation : Conditions causing postmortem caloricity:

 Disturbance in heat regulation – sunstroke, pontine haemorrhage

 Increased heat production in muscles – tetanus, strychnine poisoning

 Bacterial / viral activity – septicemia / infections

 Intense asphyxia


Que 12. ‘La Facie sympathique’ is a condition seen in

a) Hanging                     

b) Strangulation              

c) Myocardial insufficiency    

d) Railway accident

Answer - (a) Hanging

Explanation : Etienne Martin (1950) described La Facie sympathique as peculiar change, wherein right eye remaining open with dilated pupil and the left eye closed with small pupil. Thus, in the eyes of victim of hanging, wherein one of the eyes may be opened with dilated pupil, while the other eye may be closed. This occurs due to the pressure of the ligature/knot on the cervical sympathetic ganglia in the neck. Thus, the side on which the ligature/knot presses the cervical sympathetic ganglia, the eye remains open with dilatation of its pupil

Que 13. Split laceration resembles

a) Incised wounds          

b) Abrasion                    

c) Gunshot wound         

d) Contusion

Answer - (a) Incised wounds

Explanation : Split laceration occurs when the skin is crushed between two hard objects, e.g. incised-like laceration of the scalp and forehead. During a fall, the scalp, getting crushed between skull from inside and hard ground outside, splits, resulting in a wound, which usually mimics an incised wound, unless, examined closely

Que 14. Signature fracture is

a) Gutter fracture           

b) Depressed fracture     

c) Ring fracture              

d) Sutural seperation

Answer - (b) Depressed fracture

Explanation : Depressed Fractures are produced with an object having relatively large amount of kinetic energy but small surface  area, or when an object with a large amount of kinetic energy impacts only a small area of the  skull. They are produced by local deformation of the skull. In this, fractured  bone is  driven inwards  into  the  skull cavity. Rarely, in depressed fracture, only the inner table may get fractured and the outer remain intact, and vice versa may also be true. A violent blow with full striking area in operation, such as with a hammer, may detach almost the same diameter of the bone, which is driven inwards, thus often producing a pattern consistent with the offending object. This is why these fractures are also called ‘fracture signature’ or ‘signature fracture’,  as  their  pattern often resembles  the weapon or agent which caused it. 

Que 15. A man hits his neighbour, next day; he feels that police is behind him and his brain is being controlled by radio waves by his neighbour. The possible diagnosis is

a) Personality disorder                      

b) Passivity feeling     

c) Delusion of persecution               

d) Organic brain syndrome

Answer - (c) Delusion of persecution

Explanation : The above mentioned condition is associated with the Persecutory delusions which are the most common type of delusions and involve the theme of being followed, harassed, cheated, poisoned or drugged, conspired against, spied on, attacked, or otherwise obstructed in the pursuit of goals. Persecutory delusions are a condition in which the affected person wrongly believes that they are being persecuted. Specifically, they have been defined as containing two central elements: The individual thinks that:

1. harm is occurring, or is going to occur.

2. the persecutor(s) has (have) the intention to cause harm.

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